- NOTE: persistent classes are EXPERIMENTAL and, in some sense,
- incomplete. This module exists largely to test changes made to support Zope 2 ZClasses, with their historical flaws.
The persistentclass module provides a meta class that can be used to implement persistent classes.
Persistent classes have the following properties:
- They cannot be turned into ghosts
- They can only contain picklable subobjects
- They don’t live in regular file-system modules
Let’s look at an example:
>>> def __init__(self, name): ... self.name = name
>>> def foo(self): ... return self.name, self.kind
>>> import ZODB.persistentclass >>> C = ZODB.persistentclass.PersistentMetaClass( ... 'C', (object, ), dict( ... __init__ = __init__, ... __module__ = '__zodb__', ... foo = foo, ... kind = 'sample', ... ))
This example is obviously a bit contrived. In particular, we defined the methods outside of the class. Why? Because all of the items in a persistent class must be picklable. We defined the methods as global functions to make them picklable.
Also note that we explicitly set the module. Persistent classes don’t
live in normal Python modules. Rather, they live in the database. We
use information in
__module__ to record where in the database. When
we want to use a database, we will need to supply a custom class
factory to load instances of the class.
The class we created works a lot like other persistent objects. It has standard standard persistent attributes:
>>> C._p_oid >>> C._p_jar >>> C._p_serial >>> C._p_changed False
Because we haven’t saved the object, the jar, oid, and serial are all None and it’s not changed.
We can create and use instances of the class:
>>> c = C('first') >>> c.foo() ('first', 'sample')
We can modify the class and none of the persistent attributes will change because the object hasn’t been saved.
>>> import six >>> def bar(self): ... six.print_('bar', self.name) >>> C.bar = bar >>> c.bar() bar first
>>> C._p_oid >>> C._p_jar >>> C._p_serial >>> C._p_changed False
Now, we can store the class in a database. We’re going to use an explicit transaction manager so that we can show parallel transactions without having to use threads.
>>> import transaction >>> tm = transaction.TransactionManager() >>> connection = some_database.open(transaction_manager=tm) >>> connection.root()['C'] = C >>> tm.commit()
Now, if we look at the persistence variables, we’ll see that they have values:
>>> C._p_oid '\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01' >>> C._p_jar is not None True >>> C._p_serial is not None True >>> C._p_changed False
Now, if we modify the class:
>>> def baz(self): ... six.print_('baz', self.name) >>> C.baz = baz >>> c.baz() baz first
We’ll see that the class has changed:
>>> C._p_changed True
If we abort the transaction:
Then the class will return to it’s prior state:
>>> c.baz() Traceback (most recent call last): ... AttributeError: 'C' object has no attribute 'baz'
>>> c.bar() bar first
We can open another connection and access the class there.
>>> tm2 = transaction.TransactionManager() >>> connection2 = some_database.open(transaction_manager=tm2)
>>> C2 = connection2.root()['C'] >>> c2 = C2('other') >>> c2.bar() bar other
If we make changes without committing them:
>>> C.bar = baz >>> c.bar() baz first
>>> C is C2 False
Other connections are unaffected:
>>> connection2.sync() >>> c2.bar() bar other
Until we commit:
>>> tm.commit() >>> connection2.sync() >>> c2.bar() baz other
Similarly, we don’t see changes made in other connections:
>>> C2.color = 'red' >>> tm2.commit()
>>> c.color Traceback (most recent call last): ... AttributeError: 'C' object has no attribute 'color'
until we sync:
>>> connection.sync() >>> c.color 'red'
Instances of Persistent Classes¶
We can, of course, store instances of persistent classes in the database:
>>> c.color = 'blue' >>> connection.root()['c'] = c >>> tm.commit()
>>> connection2.sync() >>> connection2.root()['c'].color 'blue'
- NOTE: If a non-persistent instance of a persistent class is copied,
- the class may be copied as well. This is usually not the desired result.
Persistent instances of persistent classes¶
Persistent instances of persistent classes are handled differently than normal instances. When we copy a persistent instances of a persistent class, we want to avoid copying the class.
Lets create a persistent class that subclasses Persistent:
>>> import persistent >>> class P(persistent.Persistent, C): ... __module__ = '__zodb__' ... color = 'green'
>>> connection.root()['P'] = P
>>> import persistent.mapping >>> connection.root()['obs'] = persistent.mapping.PersistentMapping() >>> p = P('p') >>> connection.root()['obs']['p'] = p >>> tm.commit()
You might be wondering why we didn’t just stick ‘p’ into the root object. We created an intermediate persistent object instead. We are storing persistent classes in the root object. To create a ghost for a persistent instance of a persistent class, we need to be able to be able to access the root object and it must be loaded first. If the instance was in the root object, we’d be unable to create it while loading the root object.
Now, if we try to load it, we get a broken object:
>>> connection2.sync() >>> connection2.root()['obs']['p'] <persistent broken __zodb__.P instance '\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x04'>
because the module, __zodb__ can’t be loaded. We need to provide a class factory that knows about this special module. Here we’ll supply a sample class factory that looks up a class name in the database root if the module is __zodb__. It falls back to the normal class lookup for other modules:
>>> from ZODB.broken import find_global >>> def classFactory(connection, modulename, globalname): ... if modulename == '__zodb__': ... return connection.root()[globalname] ... return find_global(modulename, globalname)
>>> some_database.classFactory = classFactory
Normally, the classFactory should be set before a database is opened. We’ll reopen the connections we’re using. We’ll assign the old connections to a variable first to prevent getting them from the connection pool:
>>> old = connection, connection2 >>> connection = some_database.open(transaction_manager=tm) >>> connection2 = some_database.open(transaction_manager=tm2)
Now, we can read the object:
>>> connection2.root()['obs']['p'].color 'green' >>> connection2.root()['obs']['p'].color = 'blue' >>> tm2.commit()
>>> connection.sync() >>> p = connection.root()['obs']['p'] >>> p.color 'blue'
If we copy an instance via export/import, the copy and the original share the same class:
>>> file = connection.exportFile(p._p_oid) >>> _ = file.seek(0) >>> cp = connection.importFile(file) >>> file.close() >>> cp.color 'blue'
>>> cp is not p True
>>> cp.__class__ is p.__class__ True
XXX test abort of import